Saturday, October 29, 2016

முதல் உலகப்போர்,சோவியத் புரட்சி நடந்த சூழல், லெனின் , ட்ராட்ஸ்கி போன்றவர்களின் பங்களிப்பு, ஸ்டாலின் அதிகாரத்திற்கு வருதல் தொடர்ந்த கோர்பசாவ் காலம் வரையிலான சோவியத் நாடு குறித்த உரையாடல்கள்- மார்க்சியர், மார்க்சியர் அல்லாதவர்களின் எழுத்துக் குவியல் ஏராளம் உள்ளன. நூற்றாண்டு என்பதால் அவை மறுவாசிப்பிற்கு உள்ளாகும் . புதிய கருத்துக்கள், 20ஆம் நூற்றாண்டு சோசலிச கட்டுமான அனுபவங்களிருந்து தற்போது நடந்துவரும் 21 ஆம் நூற்றாண்டு சோசலிசம் குறித்த் உரையாடல்களை செழுமைபடுத்திக் கொள்வது என்பதும் மார்க்சிய வட்டரங்களில் பெரிதாக நடந்து வருகிறது. அதில் சிறிய அளவிலாவது பயணிக்க  வேண்டும் என்ற விழைவு உள்ளது. உலகை குலுக்கிய 10 நாட்கள் -ஜான் ரீடு  வருவஹற்கு முன்பாகவே லூசி ப்ரயண்ட் அம்மையார் எழுதிய ருஷ்யாவில் ஆறு செம்மாதங்கள் வெளியானது. நேரமுள்ளவர்களும் தெரிந்து கொள்ள விரும்புவர்க்கும் உதவியாக கீழே அப்புத்தகம் தரப்பட்டுள்ளது(Face Bookல்)


Thursday, October 27, 2016

தேசிய புகழ்வாய்ந்த நூலகங்களில் சென்னை கன்னிமாரா பொது நூலகமும் ஒன்று. ஏறத்தாழ 125 ஆண்டுகள் பழமை வாய்ந்த நூலகமது.. இணைய வசதி இல்லாத அக்காலத்தில் புகழ் வாய்ந்தவர்கள் அனைவருக்கும் அறிவைத் தேடும் பெரும் சுரங்கமாக திகழ்ந்திருக்கும். புதிய கட்டிடம் இணைக்கப்பட்டே 40 ஆண்டுகள் ஆகியிருக்கும். லட்சக்கணக்கான நூல்களின் இல்லமது.  IAS தேர்விற்கு தயாராகும் சென்னை இளைஞர்கள் ஏராளம் அங்கு மணிக்கணக்கில் படித்துக் கொண்டிருக்கிறார்கள்.சென்னை வந்தவுடன் அதில் உறுப்பினர் ஆனேன். நான் முன்பு வசித்த திருவாரூர் மாவட்ட நூலகத்தில்  பல அரிய நூல்கள் கிடைக்கப்பெற்றன. ஆக்ஸ்போர்ட் யுனிவர்சிட்டி பிரஸ் வெளியிட்ட தரமான ஆய்வு நூல்கள் (அப்போதே ரூ 500-1100வரை)  பலவற்றை அங்கு படிக்க வாய்ப்பு கிடைத்தது. அந்த்ரேபெடலி போன்றவர் எழுத்துக்கள் எனக்கு அங்குதான்அறிமுகமானது. ஒரு கட்டத்தில் அந்த நூலகத்தின் ஆரம்பகாலபுரவலர்கள் பட்டியலில் பேரா அறிவழகனும் நானும் இருந்தோம். இப்போது நிறைய பேர் இடம் பெற்றிருக்கலாம். பழைய பேட்ரான் போர்டு இருக்கிறதா என தெரியவில்லை.
லட்சக்கணக்கான புத்தகங்கள் உள்ள கன்னிமாரா ( 1890களில் இருந்த சென்னை கவர்னர் கன்னிமாரா பெயரால்) நூலகத்திற்கு நான் அறிந்த சில நண்பர்கள் வந்து போவதை பார்த்திருக்கிறேன். தந்தி இளங்கோ( தமிழ் புலமை, மார்க்சிய அறிவு,தொழிற்சங்கவாதி),  ஜெய்சங்கர் (கணிப்பொறி ஆளுமை, இலக்கியம், பக்தி இலக்கியம்),  விஜயகுமார் (கவிஞர்/ எழுத்தாளர்-தொழிற்சங்க வாதி-  உடல் நிலைபாதிப்புக்குள்ளாகி தற்போது தேறி வருகிறார்), ரெங்கநாதன்( பக்திஇலக்கியம்- வைணவ இலக்கியம்) ஆகியோர் கன்னிமாரா உறுப்பினர்களாக தொடர்கின்றனர்வீரபாண்டியன்( மார்க்சியம்-பெரியாரியம்-தமிழ்பற்று-இதழனுபவம்-தொழிற்சங்க தலைவர்) சென்னையில் இருந்தபோது கன்னிமாரா செல்லும் வழக்கம் வைத்திருந்தார்.

கன்னிமாராவில் மார்க்சிய நூல்களை தேடும் போதெல்லாம் 150க்கும் குறைவாகவே இருக்கிறதே என்ற எண்ணம் எனக்கு உருவாகும்இம்முறை சென்றபோது மூன்று புத்தகங்களை எடுத்து வந்தேன். ருஷ்ய சோவியத் புரட்சியின் 100 ஆண்டுகள் என்பதால் அது குறித்த விவாதங்கள் பெருக இருக்கின்றன. தேடல்களும் பெருகும். நானும் என்னளவில் தேடுகிறேன். கன்னிமாராவில் எடுத்த புத்தகத்தில் ஒன்று மார்க்சிய புலமை மிக்க பாராளுமன்றத்தில் தனது வாத திறமை மிகுந்த பேரா ஹிரன்முகர்ஜி அவர்களின் " Marx -Great October-India and the Future" என்ற சிறந்த புத்தகம். 1983ல் அவர் எழுதி 1984ல் அல்லய்டு பப்ளிஷர் வெளியிட்டு உள்ளனர் Marx- Lenin Legacy and their Intellectual Kinship, அக்டோபர்/நவம்பர் புரட்சி சூழல், மார்க்ஸ் இந்தியா பற்றி, இந்திய விடுதலை போன்ற பல்வேறு அம்சங்களை ஹிரன் விவாதிக்கிறார். அவரின் மூலங்கள் சார்ந்த படிப்பறிவு மூலம்  சோவியத் புரட்சி குறித்த பல பெரும் மார்க்சிய அறிஞர்களால் எழுப்பப்பட்ட சந்தேகங்கங்கள், 1980கள்வரை சோவியத் குறித்து எழுந்த பல்வேறு விமர்சனங்களுக்கு பதிலளிக்கும் வண்ணம் இந்நூலை அவர் எழுதியுள்ளார். இந்த அறிய புத்தகத்தை இதுவரை 4 பேர் மட்டுமே எடுத்துள்ளனர். 1984ல் ஒருவர், 1985ல் இருவர் அதற்கு 30 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு பின்னர் 2016ல் அடியேன்.. இப்புத்தகத்தின்  அலமாரி வரிசை எண் 335.43 MUK. 1980களில் நியுஏஜ், பார்ட்டி லைப் ஆகியவற்றில் அவர் எழுதும் கட்டுரைகளை அகராதி கொண்டுதான் புரிந்துகொள்ள முடிந்தது. இப்புத்தகத்தை கூட மார்க்சிய பயிற்சி  இல்லாமல் புரிந்து கொள்வது கடினம். ஹிரன்(1907-2004) போன்ற மார்க்சிய பேரறிஞர்கள் இடதுசாரி இயக்கங்களில் குறைந்துவருவதும் கவலைக்குரிய ஒன்றே.

Friday, October 21, 2016

 I have recently read the book of Dr Aijaz ahmad, professor of Haryana regarding the valiant role played by Muslims. I have given here some highlights
Indian Muslims Against British Rule (Ahmad, Aijaz)-
(A book bringing the glorious fight and martyrdom  of Muslim Leaders against British during 1857 Uprising)
A particular class within the Muslim society, the Ulema along with huge Muslim followers actively participated not only during the Uprising of 1857 but even before and after the same upheaval.
It happened the first time in India or perhaps in the whole world when a religious class en mass rose against their tyrant ruler
Dadhi-topi wala (Muslim cleric) and Tilakdhari (Hindu cleric), joined the hands together
World saw the miracle of the rainbow of Indian culture. The diversity of Indian culture greatly influenced the greatest social thinker
Bahadur Shah Zafar, the only national symbol at that time, who met the brutal revenge of the British,
History proves that the Indians either Hindus or Muslims were not only the great rulers but the great conquerors as well. The great masses of India, both Hindus and Muslims were strongly attached to their native system of Government devoted to their modes of faith with an obstinate and inveterate bigotry which has no parallel in the British system of Government
The Hindus and Muslims rose simultaneously to protect their ‘Dharma’ and ‘Din’
A total of about 50 European men (including soldiers), women and children were killed in Meerut by Sepoys and local crowds.
As a letter sent out by the rebels’ leaders subsequently put it: “The English are people who overthrow all religions ... As the English are the common enemy of both (Hindus and Muslims), we should unite in their slaughter ... By this alone will the lives and faiths of both be saved.”
The church and every house occupied by Christian or Europeans were attacked and rifled, and no quarter was given to age or sex. They not even left the Indians who were converted to Christianity
The 82 years-old EmperorBahadur Shah Zafar was formally declared the Emperor of Hindustan. The formal court was held, which was abandoned 15 years ago. The court was attended by many excited or unruly Sepoys
Allahabad Sepoys joined the Uprising on 6th June 1857. Badayun and Moradabad joined the rebellion on 1st and 3rd June. At Nimach, Sepoys rebelled on 6th June and Gwalior, Mehidpur (Malwa) and Nowgong the Sepoys revoted on 9th June.The Sepoys of Indore revolted on 1st of July 1857.At Punjab, the Sepoys of Ambala, Amritsar, Lahore, Peshawar, Mardan, Dera Ismail Khan, and Mianwali were dispersed and disarmed. The Sepoys at Ferozpur and Jallandhar were mutinied on 14th May and 7th June 1857. At Jaunpur, Ghazipur, and Mirzapur, the Sepoys were disarmed.
Patna, Arrah, Azamgarh, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Faizabad, Fatehpur, Jhansi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Etawah, Fategarh, Gwalior, Shahjahanpur, Agra, Bharatpur, Rohilkhand, Mathura, Agra, Hatras, Delhi, Meerut, Bareilly and Roorki, etc. emerged as storm-centres of the Revolt.
According to Karl Marx, “It is the first time that Sepoy regiments have murdered their European officers; that Musalmans and Hindus, renouncing their mutual antipathies,
In the last days, there were only the Mujahideen in the city to resist the disciplined British force. However, unfortunately, they could not harm a lot to the British soldiers and martyred while fighting at the front and in the streets. The total loss of lives of the revolutionaries was innumerable and the property which was looted and burnt was estimated in hundreds of millions.          The Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah along with his family took shelter in the Humayun’s Tomb but on the persuasion of Hodson and his spy Maulvi Rajab Ali, the Emperor and hisMost of the Emperor’s 16 sons and grandsons were tried and hanged, while two sons, Mirza Mughal, Mirza Khizr Sultan, with the grandson, the son of Mirza Mughal, by name Mirza Abu Bakr, were shot in cold blood, having first freely given up their arms,
The mutiny commenced in Jhansi and the European by leaving their women and children in the Town Fort remained themselves in the cantonment.
The Rani remained in power until April 1858, when by the advent of a British army and its operations against the doomed city the situation was again changed. Major-General Sir Hugh Rose launched an attack on Jhansi in March 1858, and got a tough resistance from the Rani and her forces.Rani was having a garrison of eleven thousand five hundred men, including fifteen hundred Sepoys who had been trained in the British army. The column of troops with General Rose was also equal in number. On the bravery of Rani, Hugh Rose described about her, “The best and bravest military leader of the rebels”.42        The battle was started on 25th of March with great enthusiasm among the forces of Rani.Tatya Tope joined the forces of Rani, their number increased vehemently about twenty-two thousand in total. However in a pitched battle, the revolutionary forces under Tatya Tope met a crushing defeat with a loss of fifteen hundred dead and wounded along with several guns.
Tatya Tope was captured by Captain Richard Meade on 7th April, and executed at Sipri on the 18th of April, 1859. Rani fought gallantly but she too bound to flee after her defeat. However, her horse in crossing the canal near the cantonment stumbled and fell. Then a Cavalry soldier, ignorant of her sex and her rank, cut her down.
Nana and his associates arranged 40 boats for the escape of the Europeans. However, when the Europeans reached in the mid-stream and sailed towards Allahabad, Nana’s forces started firing. Most of them were killed and some of them surrendered and send back as captives..Nana rode away to an unknown destination in Nepal in 1859 and probably died in the forest
The Indians found the opportunity to uproot the British Empire in 1857 in order to save their religion and nation.Among the Hindus, the Brahmans were leading in the society. They suffered a lot from the British Government’s policies.The Muslim Ulema also suffered by the same above mentioned reasons.In 1856, Lord Canning promulgated the law, legalizing the remarriage of Hindu widows, and off course this was an act of the purest benevolence from a British point of view.The Government financial aid was also stopped to the Madarsas and Pathshalas (Muslim and Hindu schools) which were being received since long back.
Hindu Sepoy generals, Generals Sudhari and Hira Singh using the term of Jihad to describe their fight against the British
Undoubtedly, it was having a unique character that Hindus blindly followed the Muslims, and Muslims had full faith in Hindus. It was the first time when both the communities hoisted the flags and chanted the each other’s slogans.According to Prof. Irfan Habib, Hindu contingents would elect Muslims as their representatives; Muslim contingents would accept a Hindu Subedar major as their head.
Sher Ali attacked him with a sharp knife and The Viceroy left the world after a few minutes, and the security embarked the dead body of the Viceroy Lord Mayo from Rule Brittania to the Glasgow ship where his wife was eagerly waiting.He simply replied that, “I killed him by the Order of Allah!” He said that he had no associate in his crime, but that God was his partner. During his trial, Sher Ali admitted that part of his motivation arose from the act of his brother
After the assassination of Lord Mayo, the Viceroy by a Wahabi convict Sher Ali at Port Blair, vigorous measures were taken by the British to eliminate the Wahabi elements.
Maulvi Liaqat Ali also wrote a National Song which was sung by the revolutionaries, holding green flag in their hands. The National Song was as follows:
(India is ours. We are its owners India is ours. It’s the holy country of all the nations and is beautiful than the paradise. It’s our property; India is ours. The whole world is brightening by its spirit. India is ours. How friendly and better and different from the rest of the world. The water currents of Ganges and Jumna rivers make its land fertile. The snowy mountain to the top is our guard and in the bottom, there is beauty of sea. India is ours. Its mines are omitting gold, diamond, and mercury. There is the sound of victory of its splendor. Hindu Muslims and Sikhs are our dear brothers. This is the flag of freedom, and we salute it.)
He got arrested in 1872 before boarding to the ship. Liaqat Ali was brought to Allahabad,he was transported to the Andaman (Kala Pani). His property was confiscated. He left his wife Hajra Bagum and a daughter to survive. He breathed his last   .Liaqat Ali transported for life in Andaman on 17th of May 1892.
The mock trial of deceased Emperor Bahadur Shah was a process of humiliating the emblematic head of India and the charges of treason that were framed against the Emperor was nothing but to prove that the Company was the real sovereign power
Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar, whatever did as a ruler was certainly not a tyranny or infidelity towards the British but a marvelous work of a successful ruler of India. Whatever he did was nothing other than patriotism to his nation and his duty of Kingship to protect..Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar died on 7th November 1862 in the Rangoon jail being buried in the night-time near his bungalow, so that none might know the resting-place of the last of the great Mughal Emperors.
Subedar Bakht Khan was described by one of his British superiors of the Bengal Native Artillery as 60 years of age, forty years of which were spent in the Company’s service.Bakht Khan and the Sepoys forced the British under Robert Alaxander, the Commissioner of Bareilly, to leave the city.Mohammad Bakht Khan was given the responsibility of virtually commanding the revolutionary forces while Mirza Mughal was still Commander-in-Chief in title.The Emperor was so unhappy with Bakht Khan, whom he ordered to go out of the city and fight with the British otherwise he ould leave the city and go wherever he wanted to. The situation came to a head on 29th of August,

Mr. Shakespeare and Syed Ahmad Khan, in order to prepare them from any danger and to save the life of the Europeans, raised a body of 100 Pathan horse and foot for their protection and also arranged intelligence for the daily news regarding the progress of the Uprising.53         About the end of May, the Uprising erupted at Bijnor but Sir Syed Ahmad Khan convinced the Roorki mutineers to bye-pass the Bijnor and advised Mr. Shakespeare to hide the treasury in the well.
Mirza Ghalib in his house started writing his diary which was known as Dastamboo in Persian and was meant to please the British.Mirza Ghalib says that everywhere the land was coloured with the blood of Englishmen and the revolutionaries never spared their innocent ladies and children.79        Mirza Ghalib further says, “Those sinful and tyrant killers have stayed place to place in the city.
 Babar addressed to his son Humayun as “So, this nation Hindustan has different religions. Thank Allah for giving us this Kingdom. We should remove all the differences from our heart and do justice to each community according to its customs. Avoid cow slaughter to win over the hearts of the people of this land and to incorporate the people in the matters of administration. Do not damage the places of worship and temples, which fall in the boundaries of our rule. Evolve a method of ruling whereby all the people of the Kingdom are happy with the King and the King is happy with the people. Islam can progress by noble deeds and not by terror. Ignore the differences of Shiya and Sunni, as this is the weakness of Islam. Keep the people following different customs integrated into a single whole, so that no part of the body of this Kingdom becomes diseased”. (Puniyani, Ram, Communal Politics Facts)