Monday, September 7, 2020

CPI and CPIM Language Policy


                                                                  CPI and CPIM

                                  Official Language Policy- Three language issue

New Age Aug 9 2020

After Cabinet Approval given for New Educational policy New Age published one arrticle on Aug 9-15 2020 Issue  with the caption that Natioanl Education Policy Needs Close Scrutiny.

In that it is stated

" Many state Govts have refused to implement the NEP. The TamilNadu Govt has rejectedthe three language formula and it has decided to continue with two language formula ( Mother tongue tamil and Eng) policy.."

New Age Aug 16 2020

NEP Offers Language Trap to Kids by Gyan Pathak

What should then be the first, second, and third language of instruction? And also what should be the first, second, and third

language to be learned as a subject? Such questions have been agitating our mind because we have over 2400 live languages in India, out of which 15

are widespread regional languages that are recognized by the Union Government  .....

..There are at least four major groups supporting Hindi, Sanskrit, English, and a regional language in every non-Hindi speaking state. It must be noted that we have been listening to a ‘three-language formula’ for a long time that has utterly failed to solve the problem. In  the midst of three- language formula, we have four fighting groups for at least four languages. .....

Start teaching with Basic language of the mulrilingual mind of our children, and then improve it slowly with regional and national language and finally shift to the international English as a medium of instruction. Unilingual treatment of multilingual mind may prove harmful. As for language acquisition as a subject it must be kept optional.


CPI Resoultion in 1965

The Communist Party of India is firmly of the opinion that the correct way to advance towards the solution of the problem is by simultaneously adhereing to both the principles viz equal development of all the regional languages and their equality, and the necessity of recognising Hindi as the official link language for essential all India purposes by common consent. Over emphasis on the later at the expense of the former or vice versa can only lead to complications and suspicions, resulting in weakening of national unity.

...There is insufficient emphasis in the constitution on the immediate necessity of replacing English at state level by regional languages; nor is there any direction to the union govt to take steps to promote the growth and development of the regional languages other than Hindi, while it emphasises the duty of the union govt to promote Hindi as the official language.

If the assurances given by Pandit Nehru are to be implemented correctly and effectively, the following steps should be taken and all necessary amendments made in the Official Languages Act to that end. The rules of procedure of the houses of Parliament should also be correspondingly amended.

1. English shall continue as an associate language of the union along with Hindi until such time as the legislatures of the States accept Hindi as the sole language at the union level.

2.The languages of the different States shall within specified time replace English as the medium of administration, of law courts and education at all levels, including the University stage...Urdu should be given recognition as an additional regionallanguage in states where a considerable section speaks urdu.

3. The union govt shall grant adequate financial assistance for the development of all regional languages.

4.In parliament and legislatures every member shall have right to use hisown mother tongue. -Simultaneous translations of the proceedings in all state languages.

5. All competitive exams of AIS shall be conducted in English as well in all languages (of 8th schedule). Quotas may be fixed for different states

6. The three language formula should be made to mean that in the secondary stage, all non Hindi speaking students should learn Hindi as one of their compulsory subjects and all Hindi speaking students should learn one of the modern Indian languages from those listed in 8th schedule as one of their compulsory subjects

(Adopted by the CPI NC on April 12, 1965  following the Introduction of Hindi as the Official language of the Union on Jan 26 1965)



CPIM PB     No to Three Language Formula

June 2, 2019  Press Statement

The Polit Bureau of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) has issued the following statement:

The Polit Bureau of the CPI(M) is unequivocally opposed to the imposition of the three-language formula from primary level of school education as proposed in the Draft National Education Policy released by the HRD ministry. The CPI(M) is of the firm opinion that the opposition is not to any particular language but for ensuring the opportunity for all Indian languages to develop and thrive.

In response to this insensitive idea contained in the draft, there has been widespread reaction particularly from the southern states. The CPI(M) strongly feels that such forcible imposition will only lead to feelings of linguistic chauvinism detrimental for the unity of our people and the country. Stung by the strong criticism, the government has issued a clarification to the effect that the document is only a draft. Given the extremely sensitive nature of the issue, the government must withdraw the current draft and come out with a fresh one setting the controversy to rest.

The Polit Bureau appeals to all democratic and right-thinking citizens, organisations, groups and individuals in the education and cultural sphere to raise their voice to force the government to roll back this disturbing initiative.

Responding NEP CPIM

CPIM Responded to NEP by 22 paras and placed the same on Aug 7 2020. In that there is no visible mention of three language issue.

CC Report CPIM

CPIM: Report on Political Developments  (Adopted at the Central Committee Meeting held on July 25-26, 2020)      Mentions

" resist the manner in which this BJP Central government is seeking to transform the Indian education system for advancing of the RSS agenda of a fascistic `Hindutva Rashtra’."  

Not visible anything about three language issue)


CPIM Programme ( as updated Oct 2000)

Chapter  vi   People’s Democracy and its programme


iv   Equality of all national languages in parliament and Central administration shall be recognized. MPs will have right to speak in their own national language and simultaneous translation in all languages.

All acts, GOs and resolutions shall be made available in all national languages. The use of Hindi as the sole official language to the exclusion of all other languages shall not be made obligatory. It can be made acceptable as the language of communication throughout the country only by providing equality to the various languages. Till then the present arrangement of the use of Hindi and English will continue.

The Right of the people to receive instruction in their own mother tongue in educational institutions upto the highest level shall be ensured

The use of the language of the particular linguistic state as the language of administration in all its public and state institutions shall also be ensured

The Urdu language and its script shall be protected.